alexa Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in sewage influents and effluents from Tromsø, Norway.
Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering

Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

Author(s): Vasskog T, Berger U, Samuelsen PJ, Kallenborn R, Jensen E

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Abstract An analytical method for quantification of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine in sewage influents and effluents from selected sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been developed and validated. This quantification method is based on solid phase extraction of 2.5L samples, followed by liquid-liquid extraction for further sample clean up in order to minimize matrix effects during subsequent quantification. The samples were analysed on a high performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detector using 0.1\% ammonia in acetonitrile/water as mobile phase, with positive electrospray ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring for detection and quantification. 1-[3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)propyl]-pyrrolidine (N-7084) was used as internal standard for quantification. The recovery rates of the SSRIs ranged between 54 and 84\%, and the method limit of quantification (MLQ) was between 120 and 290 pg/L for the target compounds. Samples were collected in July 2005 from three different STPs and a pump station in Tromsø, Northern Norway. Two of the STPs serve the University hospital and its psychiatric department, respectively, in addition to domestic sewage. SSRIs were detected in all samples collected. The concentrations varied greatly from below the MLQ to several hundreds ng/L. Concentrations in influents were higher compared to filtered effluents, indicating that SSRIs adsorb to particulate matter, are degraded by microorganisms, or degraded in other ways during the filtration process. However, more samples should be analysed before general conclusions can be drawn. This article was published in J Chromatogr A and referenced in Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

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