Author(s): Atapattu N, Ainsworth J, Willshaw H, Parulekar M, MacPherson L, Miller C, Davies P, Kirk JMW
Background: Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a disorder with postulated environmental and genetic aetiology. This study delineates clinical features and potential perinatal environmental factors along with epidemiology in SOD children. Methods: Assessment of patients with SOD triad features in the UK West Midlands region. Results: Of 227 patients identified between 1998 and 2009 with 1 or more feature of the triad, 55 had midline defects, 149 had optic nerve hypoplasia and 132 had hypopituitarism. Eighty-eight children (52% males; incidence 8.3/100,000 live births) had SOD defined as 2 out of 3 features and 21 (24%) had all 3. Sixty-one percent had anterior pituitary deficiency and 21.5% had diabetes insipidus. Median maternal/paternal ages in SOD were 21 and 23.5 years, compared to UK means of 29.3 and 32.4 years (p < 0.001). First trimester bleeding was markedly increased at 12/48 (25%) compared to 0.07% in the UK (p < 0.001). Ethnicity showed a non-significant higher prevalence in Afro-Caribbean and mixed race groups, and significantly lower prevalence (p = 0.004) in South Asian groups compared to West Midland and Birmingham city data: 8% versus 2.5 and 6.7%, 9% versus 1.8 and 3.2% and 3% versus 8.4 and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: SOD is associated with younger maternal and paternal age, primigravida births and ethnic differences. Increased first trimester bleeding may indicate that SOD is a vascular disruption sequence.