Author(s): Jaklenec A, Hinckfuss A, Bilgen B, Ciombor DM, Aaron R,
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Abstract Growth factors have become an important component for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta 1) in particular have great significance in cartilage tissue engineering. Here, we describe sequential release of IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 from modular designed poly(l,d-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. Growth factors were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres using spontaneous emulsion, and in vitro release kinetics was characterized by ELISA. Incorporating BSA in the IGF-I formulations decreased the initial burst from 80\% to 20\%, while using uncapped PLGA rather than capped decreased the initial burst of TGF-beta 1 from 60\% to 0\% upon hydration. The bioactivity of released IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 was determined using MCF-7 proliferation assay and HT-2 inhibition assay, respectively. Both growth factors were released for up to 70 days in bioactive form. Scaffolds were fabricated by fusing bioactive IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 microspheres with dichloromethane vapor. Three scaffolds with tailored release kinetics were fabricated: IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 released continuously, TGF-beta 1 with IGF-I released sequentially after 10 days, and IGF-I with TGF-beta 1 released sequentially after 7 days. Scaffold swelling and degradation were characterized, indicating a peak swelling ratio of 4 after 7 days of incubation and showing 50\% mass loss after 28 days, both consistent with scaffold release kinetics. The ability of these scaffolds to release IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 sequentially makes them very useful for cartilage tissue engineering applications.
This article was published in Biomaterials
and referenced in Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials