Author(s): Phiri IK, Phiri AM, Harrison LJ
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Abstract This study investigated the immunoglobulin isotype responses of sheep and cattle chronically infected with Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica to adult F. hepatica excretory/secretory products (Fh-ES) or F. gigantica excretory/secretory products (Fg-ES), respectively. An antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) was used to determine serum antibody (total Ig, IgG(1), IgM, IgG(2) and IgA) responses. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was lower in cattle than in sheep. All F. hepatica and F. gigantica infected sheep and cattle showed an increased total Ig levels from 3 to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Among isotypes IgG(1) was most dominant while IgM was the earliest (2 wpi) to be detected in both sheep and cattle infected with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica animals. IgG(2) response was early (2 wpi) in sheep infected by F. hepatica but there was no response in sheep infected with F. gigantica. There was a late and strong IgG(2) response in cattle infected with both flukes. The IgA isotype showed an early and a clear biphasic response in sheep with F. hepatica but was less pronounced in F. gigantica infected sheep. While IgA response to Fh-ES was noticed 5 wpi in F. hepatica infected cattle, it appeared much later (21 wpi) in those infected with F. gigantica. The dominance of IgG(1) isotype in infected sheep and cattle suggest an associated Th2 response. This early response to adult Fasciola spp. ES antigen suggests an early exposure to the antigen presumably through the cross-reacting ES products of juvenile flukes. There is clearly difference in IgG(2) isotype response in cattle (resistant) compared to sheep (susceptible). The late IgG(2) response in cattle may suggest late Th1 involvement in bovine cellular responses to adult Fh-ES/Fg-ES.
This article was published in Vet Parasitol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology