Author(s): Tsumura M, Kinouchi T, Ono S, Nakajima T, Komoda T
Arteriosclerosis is the major cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. There is much interest in the lipid metabolism of patients treated with hemodialysis.
We analyzed low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients according to patients on hemodialysis (HD), patients with diabetic nephropathy before initiation of dialysis (DN), and patients with chronic glomerulonephritis in the conservative stage (CGN); and compared the lipid metabolic abnormalities in patients on hemodialysis and those not yet on hemodialysis. We also analyzed the qualitative abnormalities of LDL and HDL and their relationship with the pathological stages.
Electrophoretic patterns identified small LDL particles and small HDL particles in the three groups, and the degree of denaturation was more enhanced in CRF patients in the conservative stage than in HD patients. For LDL susceptibility to oxidation LDL (oxLDL) by addition of Cu(2+), the lag time was approximately 57 min in healthy controls and CGN patients, but was prolonged to approximately 75 min in HD and DN patients. For HDL susceptibility to oxidation HDL (oxHDL), HD, DN and CGN patients showed lag times shorter than those found in healthy control subjects. These results showed that LDL and HDL in the serum of CRF patients were in a state of enhanced susceptibility to oxidative modification. In Western blot analysis using anti-human-denatured LDL and anti-human-oxidized HDL monoclonal antibodies, bands of low molecular oxLDL at 150-197 kDa were detected in all CRF patients, with marked tailing in CGN patients. Similarly, bands of small oxHDL particles at 110 and 120 kDa were found in HD, DN and CGN patients.
Oxidative modification of both LDL and HDL occurs in patients with advanced CRF resulting in small lipoproteins. Increased production of oxLDL and oxHDL is the main cause of lipid metabolic abnormality in CRF patients.