Author(s): Hurkmans CW, Remeijer P, Lebesque JV, Mijnheer BJ
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Abstract In this review of current clinical practice of set-up error verification by means of portal imaging, we firstly define the various types of set-up errors using a consistent nomenclature. The different causes of set-up errors are then summarized. Next, the results of a large number of studies regarding patient set-up verification are presented for treatments of patients with head and neck, prostate, pelvis, lung and breast cancer, as well as for mantle field/total body treatments. This review focuses on the more recent studies in order to assess the criteria for good clinical practice in patient positioning. The reported set-up accuracy varies widely, depending on the treatment site, method of immobilization and institution. The standard deviation (1 SD, mm) of the systematic and random errors for currently applied treatment techniques, separately measured along the three principle axes, ranges from 1.6-4.6 and 1.1-2.5 (head and neck), 1.0-3.8 and 1.2-3.5 (prostate), 1.1-4.7 and 1.1-4.9 (pelvis), 1.8-5.1 and 2.2-5.4 (lung), and 1.0-4.7 and 1.7-14.4 (breast), respectively. Recommendations for procedures to quantify, report and reduce patient set-up errors are given based on the studies described in this review. Using these recommendations, the systematic and random set-up errors that can be achieved in routine clinical practice can be less than 2.0 mm (1 SD) for head and neck, 2.5 mm (1 SD) for prostate, 3.0 mm (1 SD) for general pelvic and 3.5 mm (1 SD) for lung cancer treatment techniques.
This article was published in Radiother Oncol
and referenced in Atherosclerosis: Open Access