Author(s): Mehta KS, Halankar AR, Makwana PD, Torane PP, Satija PS,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: We have noticed a recent rise in the incidence and severity of acute renal failure (ARF) in malaria. AIM: To study the incidence, severity and outcome of ARF in malaria. SETTING AND DESIGN: It is a retrospective analysis of data of one year from a tertiary medical centre in a metropolitan city. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ARF and smear positive malaria were evaluated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Results were expressed as mean, range and standard deviation. RESULTS: Out of 402 detected smear positive malaria, 24 had ARF. Eighteen were of the age group 21-40 years. Plasmodium falciparum (PF) was detected in 16, Plasmodium vivax in three, and mixed infection in five. Non-oliguric ARF was seen in 14. Eighteen showed severe ARF (Serum creatinine >5 mg\%). Twenty-two patients needed dialysis. Prolonged ARF lasting for 2-6 weeks was seen in eight. Seventeen patients recovered completely, while seven showed fatal combination of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe ARF and PF malaria. No response was seen to chloroquine and artesunate given alone and twenty patients required quinine. CONCLUSION: ARF necessitating dialysis was seen in 92\% of patients with ARF in malaria. PF infection, severe ARF, DIC and ARDS were poor prognostic factors. Resistance was noted to both chloroquine and artesunate.
This article was published in J Postgrad Med
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics