alexa Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton.
Pediatrics

Pediatrics

Pediatrics & Therapeutics

Author(s): Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ rd

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Here we review and extend a new unitary model for the pathophysiology of involutional osteoporosis that identifies estrogen (E) as the key hormone for maintaining bone mass and E deficiency as the major cause of age-related bone loss in both sexes. Also, both E and testosterone (T) are key regulators of skeletal growth and maturation, and E, together with GH and IGF-I, initiate a 3- to 4-yr pubertal growth spurt that doubles skeletal mass. Although E is required for the attainment of maximal peak bone mass in both sexes, the additional action of T on stimulating periosteal apposition accounts for the larger size and thicker cortices of the adult male skeleton. Aging women undergo two phases of bone loss, whereas aging men undergo only one. In women, the menopause initiates an accelerated phase of predominantly cancellous bone loss that declines rapidly over 4-8 yr to become asymptotic with a subsequent slow phase that continues indefinitely. The accelerated phase results from the loss of the direct restraining effects of E on bone turnover, an action mediated by E receptors in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the ensuing slow phase, the rate of cancellous bone loss is reduced, but the rate of cortical bone loss is unchanged or increased. This phase is mediated largely by secondary hyperparathyroidism that results from the loss of E actions on extraskeletal calcium metabolism. The resultant external calcium losses increase the level of dietary calcium intake that is required to maintain bone balance. Impaired osteoblast function due to E deficiency, aging, or both also contributes to the slow phase of bone loss. Although both serum bioavailable (Bio) E and Bio T decline in aging men, Bio E is the major predictor of their bone loss. Thus, both sex steroids are important for developing peak bone mass, but E deficiency is the major determinant of age-related bone loss in both sexes. This article was published in Endocr Rev and referenced in Pediatrics & Therapeutics

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords