Author(s): Kelly KR, Abbott MJ, Turcotte LP
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Abstract Evidence shows that exercise increases insulin-sensitive glucose uptake and that exercise-induced AMP-regulated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is a likely candidate to mediate this metabolic adaptation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated AMPK activation can similarly enhance insulin-sensitive fatty acid (FA) metabolism. L6 myotubes were incubated under the following conditions: repeated plus acute 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment (RAA; 1 mmol/L AICAR for 5 h/d for 5 days plus 1 mmol/L AICAR for 60 min on day 6), repeated AICAR (RA; 1 mmol/L AICAR for 5 h/d for five days) or acute AICAR (AA; 1 mmol/L AICAR for 60 min) and were compared with control cells that were not treated with AICAR. On day six, cells from each group were incubated with or without 100 nmol/L insulin. AICAR treatment and insulin stimulation independently increased (P < 0.05) palmitate uptake in all groups. RAA potentiated the insulin-induced increase in palmitate uptake by 97\% (P < 0.05) as compared with control cells. RA and AA treatments prevented the insulin-induced decrease in palmitate oxidation, while RAA treatment restored the sensitivity of the cells to insulin action on palmitate oxidation. Total peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 alpha, atypical protein kinase C-zeta, cytochrome C and CD36 protein content was increased (P < 0.05) by RA treatment, but unaffected by insulin. These results indicate that repeated AMPK activation induces improvements in insulin-sensitive FA uptake and oxidation and that this occurs partly via changes in the expression of proteins linked to insulin signaling and FA uptake and oxidation capacity.
This article was published in Exp Biol Med (Maywood)
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals