Author(s): Johnston SC, Gress DR, Browner WS, Sidney S
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Abstract CONTEXT: Management of patients with acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) varies widely, with some institutions admitting all patients and others proceeding with outpatient evaluations. Defining the short-term prognosis and risk factors for stroke after TIA may provide guidance in determining which patients need rapid evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the short-term risk of stroke and other adverse events after emergency department (ED) diagnosis of TIA. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted from March 1997 through February 1998 in 16 hospitals in a health maintenance organization in northern California. Patients A total of 1707 patients (mean age, 72 years) identified by ED physicians as having presented with TIA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of stroke during the 90 days after index TIA; other events, including death, recurrent TIA, and hospitalization for cardiovascular events. RESULTS: During the 90 days after index TIA, 180 patients (10.5\%) returned to the ED with a stroke, 91 of which occurred in the first 2 days. Five factors were independently associated with stroke: age greater than 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95\% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.7; P=.01), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.0; 95\% CI, 1.4-2.9; P<.001), symptom duration longer than 10 minutes (OR, 2.3; 95\% CI, 1.3-4.2; P=.005), weakness (OR, 1.9; 95\% CI, 1.4-2.6; P<.001), and speech impairment (OR, 1.5; 95\% CI, 1.1-2.1; P=.01). Stroke or other adverse events occurred in 428 patients (25.1\%) in the 90 days after the TIA and included 44 hospitalizations for cardiovascular events (2.6\%), 45 deaths (2.6\%), and 216 recurrent TIAs (12.7\%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the short-term risk of stroke and other adverse events among patients who present to an ED with a TIA is substantial. Characteristics of the patient and the TIA may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from expeditious evaluation and treatment.
This article was published in JAMA
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy