Author(s): Hu Y, Li F, Han D, Wu T, Zhang Q,
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Abstract Exploring graphene oxide (GO), DNA hybridization detection usually relies on either GO decoration or DNA sequences labeling. The former endows GO with desired chemical, optical, and biological properties. The latter adopts labeled molecules to indicate hybridization. In the present work, we propose a simple, label-free DNA assay using undecorated GO directly as the sensing platform. GO is anchored on diazonium functionalized electrode through electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding or epoxy ring-opening. The π-π stacking interaction between hexagonal cells of GO and DNA base rings facilitates DNA immobilization. The adsorbed DNA sequence is specially designed with two parts, including immobilization sequence and probe sequence. In the absence of target, the two sequences lie nearly flat on GO platform. In the presence of target, probe hybridizes with it to form double helix DNA, which 'stands' on GO. While the immobilization sequence part remains 'lying' on GO surface. Hence, DNA hybridization induces GO interfacial property changes, including negative charge and conformational transition from 'lying' ssDNA to 'standing' dsDNA. These changes are monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adopted as the analytical signal. This strategy eliminates the requirement for GO decoration or DNA labeling, representing a comparatively simple and effective way. Finally, the principle is applied to the detection of conserved sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 pol gene fragment. The dynamic detection range is from 1.0×10(-12) to 1.0×10(-6) M with detection limit of 1.1×10(-13) M with 3σ. And the sequences with double- or four-base mismatched are readily distinguishable. In addition, this strategy may hold great promise for potential applications from DNA biosensing to nanostructure framework construction based on the versatile DNA self-assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Anal Chim Acta
and referenced in Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics