Author(s): Xu J, Wu L, Chen W, Chang AC
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Abstract Analytical methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of six different pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, and triclosan), three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA)) and one estrogenic compound (estrone) in soil matrix. The soils were extracted by different solvents with the help of an ultrasonic treatment at 42 kHz, followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) as a cleanup procedure. The purified extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and then analyzed by GC-MSD (SIM mode). The method was evaluated by testing the following variables: initial spiking levels, extraction solvents, solvent volumes, and soil types (sandy and clay soils). For 5 g of soil, four successive extraction steps with the mixture of acetone-ethyl acetate provided satisfactory recoveries. In the sandy soil, the recoveries of all the compounds were from 63.8 to 110.7\% for the spiking level of 100 ng/g dry soil, and from 52.2 to 108.2\% for 5 ng/g dry soil, respectively. Result was similar for the clay soil. The precision across all recoveries was high, suggesting that this method has a good reproducibility. The method was successfully employed to soil samples collected from a golf course irrigated with reclaimed wastewater in southern California, and resulted in the detection of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, triclosan, bisphenol A, and estrone at ng per gram dry weight concentration levels. The method is robust and simple, and provides straightforward analyses of these current-emerging trace organic pollutants in solid matrices.
This article was published in J Chromatogr A
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta