Author(s): Lalve A, Gamet S, Walker AS, Debieu D, Toquin V,
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Abstract Carboxamide fungicides target succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Recent field monitoring studies have identified Botrytis cinerea isolates resistant to one or several SDH inhibitors (SDHIs) with amino acid substitutions in the SDH B subunit. We confirmed, by site-directed mutagenesis of the sdhB gene, that each of the mutations identified in field strains conferred resistance to boscalid in B.cinerea, and in some cases cross-resistance to other SDHIs (fluopyram, carboxin). Enzyme inhibition studies showed that the studied modifications (SdhB_P225T/L/F, N230I, H272Y/R/L) affected the inhibition of SDH activity by SDHIs, directly contributing to resistance. Our results confirm the importance of H272, P225 and N230 for carboxamide binding. Modifications of P225 and N230 conferred resistance to the four carboxamides tested (boscalid, fluopyram, carboxin, bixafen). Modifications of H272 had differential effects on the susceptibility of SDH to SDHIs. SdhB(H272L) , affected susceptibility to all SDHIs, SdhB(H272R) conferred resistance to all SDHIs tested except fluopyram, and SdhB(H272Y) conferred fluopyram hypersensitivity. Affinity-binding studies with radiolabelled fluopyram revealed strong correlations among the affinity of SDHIs for SDH, SDH inhibition and in vivo growth inhibition in the wild type. The sdhB(H272Y) mutation did not affect SDH and respiration activities, whereas all the other mutations affected respiration by decreasing SDH activity. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article was published in Environ Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development