Author(s): Rizzo M, Berneis K, Rizzo M, Berneis K
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Abstract Small, dense low-density-lipoproteins (LDL) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus and a reduction in LDL size has been reported in patients with coronary and non-coronary forms of atherosclerosis. LDL size has been accepted as an important predictor of cardiovascular events and progression of coronary artery disease as well as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Small, dense LDL, with elevated triglyceride levels and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations, constitute the 'atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP)', a form of atherogenic dyslipidemia that is a feature of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. LDL size and subclasses show specific alterations in patients with the metabolic syndrome that probably significantly increase their cardiovascular risk; however, so far it has not been recommended to incorporate LDL size measurements in treatment plans, when hypolipidemic therapies are installed. Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high cardiovascular risk and it is still on debate if the treatment goals may be identical or whether there are distinct groups with different cardiovascular risks and hence with different treatment goals. Measurements beyond traditional lipids, such as measurements on the presence of small, dense LDL in patients with the metabolic syndrome, may help to identify cardiovascular risk subgroups. In addition, it might be possible in the future to individualize hypolipidemic treatments if more than the traditional lipids are taken into account. LDL size measurement may potentially help to assess cardiovascular risk within the metabolic syndrome and adapt the treatment goals thereafter.
This article was published in Diabetes Metab Res Rev
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research