alexa Smoking: a risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease and for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal patients--absence of evidence or evidence of absence?
Nephrology

Nephrology

Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics

Author(s): Orth SR, Hallan SI

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Abstract Although it is beyond any doubt that smoking is the number one preventable cause of death in most countries, smoking as an independent progression factor in renal disease has been questioned against the background of evidence-based criteria. This is because information from large, randomized, prospective studies that investigate the effects of smoking on renal function in healthy individuals as well as in patients with primary or secondary renal disease are lacking. Since 2003, a substantial number of clinical and experimental data concerning the adverse renal effects of smoking have been published, including large, prospective, population-based, observational studies. These more recent data together with evidence from experimental studies clearly indicate that smoking is a relevant risk factor, conferring a substantial increase in risk for renal function deterioration. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the renal risks of smoking as well as the increased cardiovascular risk caused by smoking in patients with chronic kidney disease. The conclusion is that smoking is an important renal risk factor, and nephrologists have to invest more efforts to motivate patients to stop smoking. This article was published in Clin J Am Soc Nephrol and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics

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