alexa Social class and all-cause mortality in an urban population of North India.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Socialomics

Author(s): Singh RB, Singh V, Kulshrestha SK, Singh S, Gupta P,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a rapid emergence of cardiovascular disease in India with economic development, leading to an increase in mortality due to these diseases. The exact causes of death in India, however, are not known. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied randomly selected death records from 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) victims, aged 25-64 years, out of 3034 death records during 1999-2001 at the Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. All the families of these victims could be contacted individually to find out the causes of death, by scientists/doctors-administered pre-tested verbal autopsy questionnaires, completed with the help of spouses and local treating doctors practising in the concerned lane. Social classes were assessed by a questionnaire based on attributes of per capita income, occupation, education, housing and ownership of consumer luxury items in the household. RESULTS: Causes of mortality included infectious diseases (41.1\%, n = 915) such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diarrhea/dysentery, hepatitis B, and inflammatory brain infections as the commonest causes of death in the urban population of North India. The second most common causes of death were circulatory diseases (29.1\%, n = 646), including heart attacks (10.0\%), strokes (7.8\%), valvular heart disease (7.2\%, n = 160), sudden cardiac death, and inflammatory cardiac disease (each 2.0\%, n = 44). Malignant neoplasm (5.8\%, n = 131), injury (14.0\%, n = 313), including accidents, fire and falls, and poisonings were also quite common causes of death. Miscellaneous causes of death were noted in 9.1\% (n = 202) death records, including diabetes mellitus (2.2\%, n = 49), suicides (1.8\%, n = 41), congenital anomalies (1.0, n = 37), dental caries infections (1.9, n = 42), and burns (1.3\%, n = 33). Pregnancy and perinatal causes (0.72\%, n = 15) were not commonly recorded in our study. Circulatory diseases as the cause of mortality were statistically significantly more common among higher social classes (1-3) than in lower social classes (4 and 5) whose members died more often due to infections. Heart attacks, strokes, hypertension, diabetes and obesity were statistically significantly more common among higher social classes (1-3) as compared to classes 3 and 4, but tobacco intake showed only minor differences among various classes. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that circulatory diseases, injury and malignant diseases have become the major causes of death in India, after infections. Members of social classes 1-3 died more often due to circulatory diseases and members in lower social classes died more often due to infections. Urbanization with rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in various social classes, and possibly aging of the population seem to be responsible for the double burden of diseases, related to under- and over-nutrition, causing death in a developing economy. Monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate around the clock for 7 days, with data analysed chronobiologically can detect abnormal circadian patterns associated with a large increase in cardiovascular disease risk, greater than hypertension itself, allowing the institution of prophylactic treatment. Such prehabilitation may be particularly useful to curb the increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases in both developed and developing countries. This article was published in Acta Cardiol and referenced in Journal of Socialomics

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords