Author(s): Rangappa KS, Raghavendra MP, Mahadevappa DS, Channegowda D
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Abstract Oxidation of D-mannosamine (1), D-glucosamine (2), and D-galctosamine (3) by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide or chloramine-B (CAB) at 313 K is followed by a shortening of carbon chain and obeys the rate law, rate = k[CAB][sugar][HO(-)](x)(), where x is less than unity. The products are arabinonic acid, ribonic acid, and erythronic acid for 1 and 2 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids, while lyxonic and threonic acids are predominant in the oxidation of 3 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids. Proton inventory studies made in a H(2)O-D(2)O mixture point toward a single transition state. In the proposed mechanism the alkoxy anion (S(-)) of the hexosamine formed in a base-catalyzed reaction at C-1 carbon is subjected to an electrophilic rate-limiting attack by Cl(+) of the oxidant. The hexonic acid formed is decarboxylated with loss of ammonia to form the respective pentose, which is further converted into the corresponding pentonic acid. The breaking of the bond between C-1 and C-2 carbons in pentose yields tetronic acids. The thermodynamic parameters for sugar alkoxy anion formation and activation parameters for the rate-limiting step have been evaluated.
This article was published in J Org Chem
and referenced in Modern Chemistry & Applications