Author(s): Hocher B, Liefeldt L, Quaschning T, Kalk P, Ziebig R,
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Abstract Cardiovascular mortality is remarkably high in patients who are on hemodialysis. Soluble CD154 (sCD154), a protein that belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atheromatous plaque destabilization and thrombotic events. The predictive value of sCD154 as a marker for clinical outcome in patients with ESRD was investigated. A total of 232 patients were prospectively followed for 52 mo. At study entry, clinical characteristics were documented and plasma concentrations of sCD154 and those of conventional risk predictors were analyzed. The time and cause of any hospitalization and death were documented during the entire follow-up. Survival rates were compared by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. A total of 122 patients died, 64 of cardiovascular disease, including 20 cases of fatal atherothrombotic diseases (myocardial infarction, stroke, mesenteric ischemia). All 20 cases of fatal atherothrombotic events had high sCD154 plasma levels (cutoff >6.42 ng/ml) at study entry. The total number of fatal and nonfatal atherothrombotic events was 66. Only five atherothrombotic nonfatal events occurred in patients with sCD154 <6.42 ng/ml, whereas 61 fatal and nonfatal events were seen in patients with sCD154 > or =6.42 ng/ml (P < 0.005). This was confirmed by Kaplan-Meier curves for fatal atherothrombotic events (P = 0.0214) and the combined end point fatal and nonfatal atherothrombotic events (P = 0.0039). Cox regression analysis revealed that high sCD154 is an independent predictor (relative risk 6.80; 95\% confidence interval 1.64 to 28.26; P = 0.008) for the combined end point death or hospitalization as a result of atherothrombotic events. Death or hospitalizations as a result of any other reason (arrhythmia, heart failure, infectious diseases, and cancer) were not linked to sCD154 plasma concentrations. In conclusion, sCD154 predicts nonfatal and fatal atherothrombotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, mesenteric ischemia) but not death and hospitalization as a result of any other reason in stable patients who have ESRD and are on hemodialysis.
This article was published in J Am Soc Nephrol
and referenced in Journal of Vasculitis
- Hana Zelenkova
Therapy with immune modulators (cyclosporine A) in dermatology (focusing on psoriasis, atopic eczema, allergic vasculitis, and chronic urticaria)
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