Author(s): Kumar P, Hosaka S, Koch AE
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Abstract Cellular adhesion molecules such as E-selectin function to recruit leukocytes into the inflammatory lesions of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and atherosclerosis. Monocytes are the key components of the cellular infiltrates present in these disorders. We hypothesized that soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) might mediate the chemotaxis of monocytes. In this report, we show that sE-selectin induced normal human peripheral blood monocyte migration in the nanomolar range in a concentration-dependent manner. Neutralization studies using RA human joint synovial fluids and anti-E-selectin antibody showed a mean 31\% reduction in RA synovial fluid-mediated monocyte chemotaxis (p < 0.05), indicating that sE-selectin is a major monocyte recruiter in RA. Next, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in sE-selectin-induced monocyte chemotaxis. Human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with sE-selectin showed a time-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of a broad range of cellular proteins, predominantly in the molecular size range of Src family kinases (50-60 kDa) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Western blot analysis of Src family kinases showed a time-dependent increase in Src, Hck, and Lyn phosphorylation. The pretreatment of monocytes with the Src inhibitor AG1879: 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolol[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) prior to stimulation with sE-selectin markedly inhibited Hck and Lyn phosphorylation, whereas the phosphorylation of Src was partially inhibited. In addition, the sE-selectin stimulation of monocytes resulted in the increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK. The pretreatment of monocytes with PP2 showed 89 and 83\% inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, respectively. sE-selectin also showed a time-dependent activation of Ras kinase. Furthermore, the pretreatment of monocytes with PP2 completely inhibited sE-selectin-mediated monocyte chemotaxis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel function for sE-selectin as a monocyte chemotactic agent and suggest that sE-selectin might be mediating its biological functions through the Src-MAPK pathway.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Translational Medicine