alexa Soluble forms of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 capable of modulating TLR2 signaling are present in human plasma and breast milk.
Immunology

Immunology

International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy

Author(s): LeBouder E, ReyNores JE, Rushmere NK, Grigorov M, Lawn SD,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Dysregulation of the initial, innate immune response to bacterial infection may lead to septic shock and death. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in this innate immune response, and yet the regulatory mechanisms controlling microbial-induced TLR triggering are still to be fully understood. We have therefore sought specific regulatory mechanisms that may modulate TLR signaling. In this study, we tested for the possible existence of a functionally active soluble form of TLR2. We demonstrated the existence of natural soluble forms of TLR2 (sTLR2), which we show to be capable of modulating cell activation. We found that blood monocytes released sTLR2 constitutively and that the kinetics of sTLR2 release increased upon cell activation. Analysis of cells expressing the human TLR2 cDNA or its c-myc-tagged version indicated that sTLR2 resulted from the posttranslational modification of the TLR2 protein in an intracellular compartment. Moreover, an intracellular pool of sTLR2 is maintained. sTLR2 was found naturally expressed in breast milk and plasma. Milk sTLR2 levels mirrored those of the TLR coreceptor soluble CD14. Depletion of sTLR2 from serum resulted in an increased cellular response to bacterial lipopeptide. Notably, serum sTLR2 was lower in tuberculosis patients. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and computational molecular docking studies showed an interaction between sTLR2 and soluble CD14 in plasma and milk. These findings suggest the existence of a novel and specific innate immune mechanism regulating microbial-induced TLR triggering, and may lead to new therapeutics for the prevention and/or treatment of severe infectious diseases.
This article was published in J Immunol and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords