Author(s): Allbritton NL, Oancea E, Kuhn MA, Meyer T
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Abstract Transient increases of Ca2+ concentration in the nucleus regulate gene expression and other nuclear processes. We investigated whether nuclear Ca2+ signals could be regulated independently of the cytoplasm or were controlled by cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. A fluorescent Ca2+ indicator that is targeted to the nucleus was synthesized by coupling a nuclear localization peptide to Calcium Green dextran, a 70-kDa Ca2+ indicator. Stimulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells by antigen or by photolytic uncaging of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced transient increases in nuclear and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. Elevations in the nuclear Ca2+ concentration followed those in the nearby perinuclear cytosol within 200 ms. Heparin-dextran, an inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor that is excluded from the nucleus, was synthesized to specifically block the release of Ca2+ from cytosolic stores. Addition of this inhibitor suppressed Ca2+ transients in the nucleus and the cytosol. We conclude that the Ca2+ level in the nucleus is not independently controlled. Rather, nuclear Ca2+ increases follow cytosolic Ca2+ increases with a short delay most likely due to Ca2+ diffusion from the cytosol through the nuclear pores.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy