Author(s): Jandera P, Jandera P
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Abstract Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is valuable alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography separations of polar, weakly acidic or basic samples. In principle, this separation mode can be characterized as normal-phase chromatography on polar columns in aqueous-organic mobile phases rich in organic solvents (usually acetonitrile). Highly organic HILIC mobile phases usually enhance ionization in the electrospray ion source of a mass spectrometer, in comparison to mobile phases with higher concentrations of water generally used in reversed-phase (RP) LC separations of polar or ionic compounds, which is another reason for increasing popularity of this technique. Various columns can be used in the HILIC mode for separations of peptides, proteins, oligosaccharides, drugs, metabolites and various natural compounds: bare silica gel, silica-based amino-, amido-, cyano-, carbamate-, diol-, polyol-, zwitterionic sulfobetaine, or poly(2-sulphoethyl aspartamide) and other polar stationary phases chemically bonded on silica gel support, but also ion exchangers or zwitterionic materials showing combined HILIC-ion interaction retention mechanism. Some stationary phases are designed to enhance the mixed-mode retention character. Many polar columns show some contributions of reversed phase (hydrophobic) separation mechanism, depending on the composition of the mobile phase, which can be tuned to suit specific separation problems. Because the separation selectivity in the HILIC mode is complementary to that in reversed-phase and other modes, combinations of the HILIC, RP and other systems are attractive for two-dimensional applications. This review deals with recent advances in the development of HILIC phase separation systems with special attention to the properties of stationary phases. The effects of the mobile phase, of sample structure and of temperature on separation are addressed, too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Anal Chim Acta
and referenced in Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques