Author(s): Attard P
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Abstract Several variational principles that have been proposed for nonequilibrium systems are analyzed. These include the principle of minimum rate of entropy production due to Prigogine [Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (Interscience, New York, 1967)], the principle of maximum rate of entropy production, which is common on the internet and in the natural sciences, two principles of minimum dissipation due to Onsager [Phys. Rev. 37, 405 (1931)] and to Onsager and Machlup [Phys. Rev. 91, 1505 (1953)], and the principle of maximum second entropy due to Attard [J. Chem.. Phys. 122, 154101 (2005); Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3585 (2006)]. The approaches of Onsager and Attard are argued to be the only viable theories. These two are related, although their physical interpretation and mathematical approximations differ. A numerical comparison with computer simulation results indicates that Attard's expression is the only accurate theory. The implications for the Langevin and other stochastic differential equations are discussed.
This article was published in J Chem Phys
and referenced in Air & Water Borne Diseases