Author(s): Taylor KR, Rudisill JA, Gallo RL
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Abstract Glycosaminoglycans have been implicated in the binding and activation of a variety of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. In this way, glycosaminoglycans are thought to participate in events such as development and wound repair. In particular, heparin and heparan sulfate have been well studied, and specific aspects of their structure dictate their participation in a variety of activities. In contrast, although dermatan sulfate participates in many of the same biological processes as heparin and heparan sulfate, the interactions of dermatan sulfate have been less well studied. Dermatan sulfate is abundant in the wound environment and binds and activates growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and FGF-7, which are present during the wound repair process. To determine the minimum size and sulfation content of active dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides, dermatan sulfate was first digested and then separated by size exclusion high pressure liquid chromatography, and the activity to facilitate FGF-2 and FGF-7 was assayed by the cellular proliferation of cell lines expressing FGFR1 or FGFR2 IIIb. The minimum size required for the activation of FGF-2 was an octasaccharide and for FGF-7 a decasaccharide. Active fractions were rich in monosulfated, primarily 4-O-sulfated, disaccharides and iduronic acid. Increasing the sulfation to primarily 2/4-O-sulfated and 2/6-O-sulfated disaccharides did not increase activity. Cell proliferation decreased or was abolished with higher sulfated dermatan sulfate preparations. This indicated a preference for specific dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides capable of promoting FGF-2- and FGF-7-dependent cell proliferation. These data identify critical oligosaccharides that promote specific members of the FGF family that are important for wound repair and angiogenesis.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine