Author(s): Hisanaga Y, Ago H, Nakagawa N, Hamada K, Ida K,
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Abstract Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases are responsible for fatty acid degradation as well as physiological regulation of cellular functions via the production of long chain fatty acyl-CoA esters. We report the first crystal structures of long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase homodimer (LC-FACS) from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (ttLC-FACS), including complexes with the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido) triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and myristoyl-AMP. ttLC-FACS is a member of the adenylate forming enzyme superfamily that catalyzes the ATP-dependent acylation of fatty acid in a two-step reaction. The first reaction step was shown to propagate in AMP-PNP complex crystals soaked with myristate solution. Myristoyl-AMP was identified as the intermediate. The AMP-PNP and the myristoyl-AMP complex structures show an identical closed conformation of the small C-terminal domains, whereas the uncomplexed form shows a variety of open conformations. Upon ATP binding, the fatty acid-binding tunnel gated by an aromatic residue opens to the ATP-binding site. The gated fatty acid-binding tunnel appears only to allow one-way movement of the fatty acid during overall catalysis. The protein incorporates a hydrophobic branch from the fatty acid-binding tunnel that is responsible for substrate specificity. Based on these high resolution crystal structures, we propose a unidirectional Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping-Pong mechanism for the two-step acylation by ttLC-FACS.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics