alexa Structural changes in the rat brain after carotid infusions of hyperosmolar solutions. An electron microscopic study.
Materials Science

Materials Science

Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

Author(s): Salahuddin TS, Johansson BB, Kalimo H, Olsson Y

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Abstract Infusion of hypertonic solutions into the carotid artery is one method by which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be opened transiently in experimental animals. This technique has also been tried in clinical situations in which an enhanced uptake of intravenously injected chemotherapeutic drugs into the brain is desired. We have previously found that infusion of hypertonic mannitol or urea into the carotid artery of the rat, leading to a BBB opening, is associated with light microscopic signs of cellular damage in the brain parenchyma. An electron microscopic study has now been made to obtain more detailed information about the events taking place in the rat brain 1 to 72 h after an intracarotid infusion of hyperosmolar solution of mannitol. Toluidine blue-stained semithin epon sections were also available for high-resolution light microscopy of brain samples from urea-infused animals. Intravenously injected Evan's blue dye was used to confirm that BBB opening had occurred as a consequence of the carotid infusions. The infused hemispheres had numerous structural changes. The dominating light microscopic alteration was the presence of multifocal lesions in the gray or the white matter with closely packed microvacuoles causing status spongiosus. Ultrastructurally the microvacuoles corresponded to very pronounced watery swelling of astrocytic processes and to a minor degree to expansion of dendrites and axons. There was also a light or moderate perivascular astrocytic swelling. In the "spongy" lesions as well as occasionally in non-vacuolated parts of the cerebral cortex, there were collapsed electron-dense neurons with pronounced mitochondrial alterations such as severe swelling associated with rupture of christae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This article was published in Acta Neuropathol and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

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