Author(s): Tanji H, Ohto U, Shibata T, Miyake K, Shimizu T
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Abstract Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 recognize single-stranded RNA and initiate innate immune responses. Several synthetic agonists of TLR7-TLR8 display novel therapeutic potential; however, the molecular basis for ligand recognition and activation of signaling by TLR7 or TLR8 is largely unknown. In this study, the crystal structures of unliganded and ligand-induced activated human TLR8 dimers were elucidated. Ligand recognition was mediated by a dimerization interface formed by two protomers. Upon ligand stimulation, the TLR8 dimer was reorganized such that the two C termini were brought into proximity. The loop between leucine-rich repeat 14 (LRR14) and LRR15 was cleaved; however, the N- and C-terminal halves remained associated and contributed to ligand recognition and dimerization. Thus, ligand binding induces reorganization of the TLR8 dimer, which enables downstream signaling processes.
This article was published in Science
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics