alexa Structure and evolution of a family of genes encoding antiseptic and disinfectant resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

Author(s): Tim G Littlejohn, Dario DiBerardino, Linda J Messerotti, Samantha J Spiers, Ronald A Skurray

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Resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants in Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by the qacC/qacD gene family, is associated with genetically dissimilar small, nontransmissible (pSK89) and large conjugative (pSK41) plasmids. The qacC and qacD genes were analysed in detail through deletion mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis, and shown to encode the same polypeptide, predicted to be 107 aa in size. Direct repeat elements flank the qacD gene, elements which also flank the qacC gene in truncated forms. These elements contain palA sequences, regions of DNA required for replication of some plasmids in S. aureus. The qacC gene is predicted to have evolved from the qacD gene, and in the process to have become reliant on new promoter sequences for its expression. The entire sequence of the 2.4-kb plasmid pSK89 (which contains qacC) was determined, and is compared with other plasmids from Gram + bacteria.

This article was published in Gene and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

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