alexa Structure and function of lamellar bodies, lipid-protein complexes involved in storage and secretion of cellular lipids.
Veterinary Sciences

Veterinary Sciences

Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology

Author(s): Schmitz G, Mller G

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Abstract This review article attempts to present an overview of the occurrence and function of lipid storage and secretory organelles: the lamellar bodies. Morphologically these organelles vary considerably in size (100 nm to 2400 nm); they are surrounded by a membrane and contain multilamellar lipid membranes. Lamellar bodies may also contain apolipoproteins and lytic enzymes and have an acidic pH, which confers on them a lysosomal character. Under normal physiological conditions, the main function of lamellar bodies is the supply of extracellular domains with specialized lipid components related to a specialized function. The lamellar bodies of the lung epithelium are best investigated in their functional and structural features and are the storage form of the lung surfactant. They provide a monomolecular lipid film of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on the surface of lung alveoli to lower surface tension necessary for optimal gas exchange and a hydrophobic protective lining against environmental influences. Additional cells of the respiratory system such as the mucosa of the human nose and the bronchi contain lamellar bodies. Lamellar bodies are also found in the gastrointestinal tract, in tongue papillae, oral epithelium, and mucosa cells of the stomach. The major phospholipid of lamellar bodies in mucosa cells of the stomach is DPPC, providing a hydrophobic protective lipid film against the tissue-damaging activities of gastric juice. The hydrophobic water-protective barrier of the skin, which consists mainly of neutral lipids, however, also originates from lamellar bodies secreted by epithelial cells. Lamellar bodies, mainly consisting of DPPC, also occur in mesodermal cell layers of sliding surfaces to provide the lubrication of joints, of the peritoneum, pericardium, and pleural mesothelium. In certain pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, Niemann-Pick disease, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, cholestasis, degeneration of nerves and brain, and regeneration of nerves and wound healing, lipid-containing lamellar bodies have been observed in various cells, the function of which still remains to be elucidated. In early and late lesions of atherosclerotic plaques, lamellar bodies, consisting of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids, are associated with the extracellular matrix of the intima. During regression of fatty streaks, lamellar bodies are seen intracellularly in macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Inherited metabolic disorders, such as Niemann-Pick disease type I and type II, result in the excessive accumulation of lamellar body-containing cells, for example in bone marrow, spleen, and lymphoid tissue. Type I is a deficiency in sphingomyelinase and type II is a defect in intracellular trafficking of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
This article was published in J Lipid Res and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology

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