Author(s): Roller DG, Dollery SJ, Doyle JL, Nicola AV
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Abstract Fusion-from-without (FFWO) is the rapid induction of cell fusion by virions in the absence of viral protein synthesis. The combination of two amino acid mutations in envelope glycoprotein B (gB), one in the ectodomain and one in the cytoplasmic tail, can confer FFWO activity to wild type herpes simplex virus (HSV). In this report, we analyzed the entry and cell fusion phenotypes of HSV that contains FFWO gB, with emphasis on the cellular receptors for HSV, nectin-1, nectin-2 and HVEM. The ability of an HSV strain with FFWO gB to efficiently mediate FFWO via a specific gD-receptor correlated with its ability to mediate viral entry by that receptor. A FFWO form of gB was not sufficient to switch the entry of HSV from a pH-dependent, endocytic pathway to a direct fusion, pH-independent pathway. The conformation of gB with FFWO activity was not globally altered relative to wild type. However, distinct monoclonal antibodies had reduced reactivity with FFWO gB, suggesting an altered antigenic structure relative to wild type. FFWO was blocked by preincubation of virions with neutralizing antibodies to gB or gD. Together with previous studies, the results indicate that the roles of gB in FFWO and in virus-cell fusion during entry are related but not identical. This study also suggests that the FFWO function of gB is not a specific determinant for the selection of HSV entry pathway and that antigenic differences in FFWO gB may reflect its enhanced fusion activity.
This article was published in Virology
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals