Author(s): Mandler JM, McDonough L
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Abstract Imitation of events was used to explore the inductive generalizations that 14-month-olds have made about animals, vehicles, and household artifacts. In Experiment 1 infants generalized domain-specific properties such as drinking to animals but not to vehicles, whereas they generalized domain-neutral properties such as going into a building to exemplars from both domains. The next four experiments showed that infants tend to interpret animal events very broadly, for example, construing a dog merely as a land animal rather than as a differentiated kind in its own right. Infants were somewhat more selective in their construals of vehicles. Experiment 6 showed that 14-month-olds also generalize "basic-level properties" very broadly. For example, they chose a pan to demonstrate drinking almost as often as a cup and fed a bone to a bird as often as to a dog. By 20 months, their selections narrowed appropriately for artifacts, but were still overgeneralized for natural kinds. The experiments indicate that infants tend to generalize their early experiences broadly across domains, often across exemplars that have a variety of different surface characteristics. The data suggest that it is the conceptual meaning of objects, rather than their physical features, that controls early associative learning. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
This article was published in Cogn Psychol
and referenced in Journal of Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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- Chuanling Zhang
Genetic Code Expansion in Natural Propagation for Site-Specific Engineering and Tracking of Single Adeno-Associated Viruses
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