Author(s): Annie MotardBlanger, Amlie Charest, Genevive Grenier, Paul Paquin, Yvan Chouinard, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Benoit Lamarche
While the intake of trans fatty acids from industrially hydrogenated oils (iTFA) is known to have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health, the effects of TFA from ruminants (rTFA) are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of rTFA and iTFA on LDL-C and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in human. In a double-blind, randomized controlled crossover study, 38 healthy men were fed each of 4 experimental isoenergetic diets lasting 4 weeks each. The 4 diets were 1- high in rTFA (10.2 g/2500 kcal), 2- moderately high in rTFA (4.2 g/2500 kcal), 3- high in iTFA (10.2 g/2500 kcal) and 4- the control diet low in TFA from any sources (2.2 g/2500 kcal). LDL-C levels were higher after the high rTFA diet than after the control (p=0.03) and the moderate rTFA diets (p=0.002). LDL-C levels were also higher after the iTFA diet compared to the moderate rTFA diet (p=0.02). HDL-C were lower after the high rTFA diet than after the moderate rTFA diet (p=0.02). All risk factors were comparable between the control and the moderate rTFA diets. While a very high dietary intake of TFA from ruminants may have a deleterious impact on cholesterol homeostasis, consumption of rTFA corresponding to the upper limit of current human consumption has neutral effects on plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors. Financial support: Dairy Farmers of Canada, Novalait, Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health.