Author(s): D J Hole, G C M Watt, G DaveySmith, C L Hart, C R Gillis, V M Hawthorne, Chindhi S, Thakur S, Sarkar M, Negi PC
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important non-communicable disease worldwide with a rising global incidence. COPD is associated with multiple co-morbidities. Patients with COPD are at increased risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in COPD. The present case-control study was designed to assess the relationship between sub-clinical atherosclerotic vascular diseases with COPD. METHODS: It was a prospective case-control blinded observational study. There were 142 COPD patients and 124 age-and sex-matched controls without COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Frequency of sub-clinical atherosclerosis was assessed by the carotid B-mode duplex ultrasonography assessment of carotid wall intima medial thickness (IMT). Plaque was defined as IMT of more than 1.2 mm. RESULTS: Prevalence of carotid plaqing was significantly higher amongst patients of COPD (38.7\%) compared to controls (13.7\%, odds ratio 3.9, P < 0.0001). Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed COPD as an independent predictor of carotid plaqing (r = 0.85, P < 0.023). CONCLUSION: The frequency of carotid plaqing is high in COPD patients. Carotid plaqing may be due to shared risk factors or the presence of low-grade systemic inflammation. Presence of increased CIMT and carotid plaqing in COPD patients identifies early atherosclerotic changes and future cardiovascular risk. Hence screening of CIMT should be a part of cardiovascular assessment in patients with COPD.
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This article was published in Lung India
and referenced in Translational Medicine