Author(s): Marik PE
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare sublingual PCO(2) (PslCO(2)) measurements with gastric intramucosal PCO(2) (PimCO(2)) as well as with the traditional indexes of tissue oxygenation in hemodynamically unstable ICU patients. DESIGN: A prospective, validation study. SETTING: The medical and coronary ICUs of a community teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, or cardiogenic shock requiring pulmonary artery catheterization for hemodynamic management. INTERVENTIONS: During the first 24 h of ICU admission, the PslCO(2), PimCO(2), and blood lactate concentrations as well conventional hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were recorded every 4 to 6 h. The PslCO(2)-PaCO(2) and PimCO(2)-PaCO(2) differences were used as indexes of tissue dysoxia. These variables were correlated with each other as well as with the traditional markers of tissue oxygenation. RESULTS: Seventy-six data sets were obtained on 22 patients. Fifteen patients had severe sepsis/septic shock, and 7 patients did not have sepsis. A patient with ischemic bowel who had a large PimCO(2)-PslCO(2) difference (60.2 mm Hg) was excluded. The initial PslCO(2) and PimCO(2) measurements were 43.5 +/- 10.4 mm Hg and 42.8 +/- 10.9 mm Hg, respectively (correlation coefficient [r] of 0.86; p < 0.001). The mean PslCO(2) and PimCO(2) for the entire data set were 48.0 +/- 13.4 mm Hg and 46.1 +/- 12.3 mm Hg, respectively (r = 0.78; p < 0.001). Ten patients died. The initial PslCO(2)-PaCO(2) difference was 9.2 +/- 5.0 mm Hg in the survivors and 17.8 +/- 11.5 mm Hg in the nonsurvivors (p = 0.04). The initial PimCO(2)-PaCO(2) difference was 8.4 +/- 4.8 mm Hg in the survivors and 16.1 +/- 13.7 mm Hg in the nonsurvivors (p = 0.08, not significant). The initial PslCO(2)-PaCO(2) difference correlated with the initial mixed venous-arterial CO(2) gradient (r = 0.66; p = 0.001), but correlated poorly with the initial blood lactate concentration (r = 0.38), mixed venous PO(2) (r = 0.05), and systemic oxygen delivery (r = - 0.39). CONCLUSION: In this study, sublingual capnometry yielded measurements that correlated well with those of gastric tonometry. PslCO(2) may serve as a technically simple and noninvasive clinical measurement of tissue dysoxia in critically ill and injured patients.
This article was published in Chest
and referenced in Emergency Medicine: Open Access