Author(s): Vogt W
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Abstract Since plasma is a homogenous fluid its biochemical systems need special control mechanisms to prevent their unlimited and continuous activity. In general, enzymic activity is not preformed but generated by trigger processes. Activation is then enhanced by cascade reactions. It can be controlled by enzyme inhibitors, by enzymes which destroy co-factors, or by spontaneous decay or enzyme complexes involved in the system. In addition, in some reactions of the complement and Hageman factor-dependent systems the necessity of substrate modulation controls the extent of activation. Thus, factor B of the properdin system is activatable by factor D only when bound to the activated third component of complement, and C3b fragment; similarly C2 is activated and forms the C3 converting complex, C42, only when bound to C4b prior to its cleavage by C1; C5 can be activated by either of the two convertases only when bound to surface-fixed C3b; and the mutural activation of Hageman factor and pre-kallikrein on surfaces proceeds efficiently only when HMW-kininogen is present which complexes with pre-kallikrein and possibly with Hageman factor.
This article was published in Adv Exp Med Biol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology