Author(s): Ramalingam S, Kannangai R, Vijayakumar TS, Mathai D, Abraham OC,
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Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The global surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtypes (clades) helps understand the global distribution and incidence of different HIV subtypes. As knowledge about subtypes circulating in an area is needed for developing a candidate vaccine, prevalence of the subtypes HIV-1 and HIV-2 were studied in south India. The profile of cytokines interleukin 10 (IL10) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) in both types of infection were also analysed as these are considered indicators of disease progression. METHODS: Patients who belonged to the 4 south Indian States i.e. Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were included. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by the heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA) while that of HIV-2 was done by direct sequencing. The quantitation of IFNgamma and IL-10 was carried out using commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Among the 82 HIV-1 infected individuals subtyped, 78 (95.1\%) were subtype C while all 12 HIV-2 strains were subtype A. IL-10 concentration was significantly higher among HIV infected individuals compared to normal healthy controls. IFNgamma was significantly higher among symptomatic and AIDS groups compared to asymptomatic HIV-1 infected individuals. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: HIV-1 subtype C and the HIV-2 subtype A are the major subtypes circulating in south India. The study showed a trend towards a shifting of the cytokine profile from Th1 to Th2/Th0 in HIV-1, HIV-2 infections, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infected individuals as the disease progresses. This trend observed is not unlike that reported from the West, despite the difference in subtype profile.
This article was published in Indian J Med Res
and referenced in Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis