alexa Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine

Author(s): Stipanuk MH

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Tissue concentrations of both homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) are maintained at low levels by regulated production and efficient removal of these thiols. The regulation of the metabolism of methionine and Cys is discussed from the standpoint of maintaining low levels of Hcy and Cys while, at the same time, ensuring an adequate supply of these thiols for their essential functions. S-Adenosylmethionine coordinately regulates the flux through remethylation and transsulfuration, and glycine N-methyltransferase regulates flux through transmethylation and hence the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. Cystathionine beta-synthase activity is also regulated in response to the redox environment, and transcription of the gene is hormonally regulated in response to fuel supply (insulin, glucagon, and glucocorticoids). The H2S-producing capacity of cystathionine gamma-lyase may be regulated in response to nitric oxide. Cys is substrate for a variety of anabolic and catabolic enzymes. Its concentration is regulated primarily by hepatic Cys dioxygenase; the level of Cys dioxygenase is upregulated in a Cys-responsive manner via a decrease in the rate of polyubiquitination and, hence, degradation by the 26S proteasome. This article was published in Annu Rev Nutr and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version