Author(s): Yumi Yamamoto, MinJean Yin, KengMean Lin, Richard B Gaynor
Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is related both structurally and pharmacologically to indomethacin. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, sulindac has been demonstrated to have a role in the prevention of colon cancer. Both its growth inhibitory and anti-inflammatory properties are due at least in part to its ability to decrease prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenases. Recently, we demonstrated that both aspirin and sodium salicylate, but not indomethacin, inhibited the activity of an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) that is required to activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In this study, we show that sulindac and its metabolites sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone can also inhibit the NF-κB pathway in both colon cancer and other cell lines. Similar to our previous results with aspirin, this inhibition is due to sulindac-mediated decreases in IKKβ kinase activity. Concentrations of sulindac that inhibit IKKβ activity also reduce the proliferation of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the growth inhibitory and anti-inflammatory properties of sulindac may be regulated in part by inhibition of kinases that regulate the NF-κB pathway.