Author(s): Gillet JL, Perrin M, Cayman R
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were first to estimate the potential gravity of superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) of the lower limbs by determining the frequency of associated deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and extensions of the junction or a perforating vein and second to identify factors of risk (neoplasia, thrombophilia, connective tissue disease, thromboembolic events). METHOD: We conducted a prospective study in 100 cases of SVT in 88 patients with varicose veins (VV) and 12 patients without varicose veins (NVV). RESULTS: Superficial venous thrombosis was identified in 32 cases (32\%): muscle vein in 23 (gastrocnemius, solesu), popliteo-femoro-iliac system in 5, and posterior tibial or fibular vein in 4. In 17 cases (17) the SVT extended to deep veins at distant localizations in 15 (15\%). Pulmonary embolism was suspected clinically in 10 cases (10\%) and confirmed in 3 (3\%). An extension to the saphenous junction was observed in 17 cases (17\%) and the thrombus migrated into a deep vein in 7. There were 6 cases of a unique extension to a perforating vein. Search for etiology was conducted in 86 cases: 64 were negative (74.4\%), there was a neoplasia context in 5 (6\%) and a hemostasis disorder in 17 (19.8\%) including 6/12 (50\%) in the NVV group and 11/74 (15\%) in the VV group. CONCLUSION: Superficial venous thrombosis is often considered to be benign although severe situations can occur in patients with a hemostatis disorder. Consideration of these different factors (risk factors, presence of a deep venous thrombus or pulmonary embolism) should be helpful in determining the etiology and for a better choice of a therapeutic option (medical/surgical) depending on the different subpopulations identified.
This article was published in J Mal Vasc
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research