Author(s): Huang WC, Chio CC, Chi KH, Wu HM, Lin WW
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Abstract In this study, we examined the signaling pathways for extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation by three structurally different peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists. In murine C2C12 myoblasts, treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), ciglitazone, and GW1929 leads to ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with ERK phosphorylation, mitogen activated protein/ERK kinase (MEK) phosphorylation as well as Raf-1 kinase activity are also accordingly stimulated, while the constitutive Ser259 phosphorylation of Raf-1 is decreased. The ERK phosphorylation induced by PPARgamma agonists is not blocked by the PKC inhibitors GF109203X and Ro31-8220, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, the Ras inhibitor FPTI, the negative mutant of Ras, or the PPARgamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidil ether. Expression of PPARgamma2 without DNA binding domain or with a nonphosphorylatable mutant (S112A) fails to change ERK phosphorylation by 15d-PGJ(2). On the contrary, the ERK phosphorylation by PPARgamma agonists is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, GSH, and permeable SOD mimetic MnTBAP. Chemiluminescence study reveals that these three PPARgamma agonists are able to induce superoxide anion production, with an efficacy similar to their action on ERK phosphorylation. Consistent with this notion, we also show that superoxide anion donor 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphoquinone elicits ERK phosphorylation. In this study, we for the first time demonstrate a novel mechanism, independent of Ras activation but initiated by superoxide anion production, for PPARgamma agonists to trigger the Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
This article was published in Exp Cell Res
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology