Author(s): Barr RM, Walker SL, Tsang W, Harrison GI, Ettehadi P,
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Abstract Cytokines induced in skin by ultraviolet radiation cause local and systemic immunosuppression. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 are key mediators in the mouse, but less is known about cytokine synthesis and function in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin. We exposed human skin to 3 minimal erythema doses of solar-simulated radiation and raised suction blisters at intervals to 72 h. Alloantigen presentation was suppressed in a mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction by 69\% from 4 to 15 h post-solar-simulated radiation, but recovered to control values by 24 h. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was raised at 4 h after solar-simulated radiation, reached a maximum 8-fold increase at 15 h, then rapidly declined to control values. Interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1beta were first increased at 15 h, and remained raised to 72 h, although interleukin-1beta declined from its 15 h maximum. Interleukin-10 increased a maximum 2-fold between 15 and 24 h, coincident with recovery of mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction responses and downregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta. Solar-simulated radiation differentially affected soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors; soluble tumor necrosis factor-RI was suppressed 33\% at 8-15 h whereas soluble tumor necrosis factor-RII increased 2-fold from 15 to 48 h. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was raised at all times post-irradiation. Interleukin-12 was not detectable in control or irradiated skin. These kinetics suggest the tumor necrosis factor alpha network has primary importance in ultraviolet-damaged human skin. The small increase in interleukin-10 implies that 3 minimal erythema doses of solar-simulated radiation is the threshold dose for its induction and local, rather than systemic, functions for interleukin-10 in immunosuppression and regulation of other cytokines.
This article was published in J Invest Dermatol
and referenced in Journal of Arthritis