alexa Surgical anatomy of human parathyroid glands.


Journal of Surgery

Author(s): Akerstrm G, Malmaeus J, Bergstrm R

Abstract Share this page

Abstract In an autopsy study of 503 cases the parathyroid glands were dissected, and the number of glands in each case and the anatomic distribution of the glands were recorded. In 18 cases (3\%) only three glands were found. In these cases the lower combined weight suggested that a fourth gland had been missed. In 421 cases (84\%) there were four glands and in 64 cases (13\%) there were supernumerary glands. Most often the supernumerary gland was a fifth gland, usually in the thymus. The anatomic distribution of the glands showed considerable constancy. The positions of the glands on the one side were symmetrical with those on the other side in approximately 80\% of cases. The superior parathyroids were frequently found just above the intersection between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery. The inferior parathyroids most often lay somewhat more ventrally, close to the lower thyroid pole or in the upper thymus or thyrothymic ligament. In a few cases the lower parathyroids were situated higher up in the neck, obviously because of a failure of descent during the embryologic development. In view of the number of supernumerary glands and their location, it is concluded that wide excision of fat tissue surrounding the parathyroids and thymectomy should be performed during operation in patients with hyperparathyroidism secondary to uremia or those with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes.
This article was published in Surgery and referenced in Journal of Surgery

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version