alexa Survey of phthalates, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and herbicides in Spanish source waters intended for bottling.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): BonoBlay F, Guart A, de la Fuente B, Pedemonte M, Pastor MC,

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Abstract BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Groundwaters and source waters are exposed to environmental pollution due to agricultural and industrial activities that can enhance the leaching of organic contaminants. Pesticides are among the most widely studied compounds in groundwater, but little information is available on the presence of phthalates, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. These compounds are used in pesticide formulations and represent an emerging family of contaminants due to their widespread environmental presence and endocrine-disrupting properties. Knowledge on the occurrence of contaminants in source waters intended for bottling is important for sanitary and regulatory purposes. So the aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of phthalates, alkylphenols, triazines, chloroacetamides and bisphenol A throughout 131 Spanish water sources intended for bottling. Waters studied were spring waters and boreholes which have a protection diameter to minimize environmental contamination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Waters were solid-phase extracted (SPE) and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quality control analysis comprising recovery studies, blank analysis and limits of detection were performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Using SPE and GC-MS, the 21 target compounds were satisfactorily recovered (77-124 \%) and limits of quantification were between 0.0004 and 0.029 μg/L for pesticides, while for alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates the limits of quantification were from 0.0018 μg/L for octylphenol to 0.970 μg/L for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Among the 21 compounds analysed, only 9 were detected at levels between 0.002 and 1.115 μg/L. Compounds identified were triazine herbicides, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and two phthalates. Spring waters or shallow boreholes were the sites more vulnerable to contaminants. Eighty-five percent of the samples did not contain any of the target compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Target compounds were detected in a very low concentration and only in very few samples. This indicates the good quality of source waters intended for bottling and the effectiveness of the protection measures adopted in Spain. None of the samples analysed exceeded the maximum legislated levels for drinking water both in Spain and in the European Union. This article was published in Environ Sci Pollut Res Int and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

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