Author(s): Barst RJ, McGoon MD, Elliott CG, Foreman AJ, Miller DP,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 216 patients ≤18 years of age at diagnosis who were enrolled in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL). Median age at diagnosis and enrollment was 7 and 15 years, respectively. The most frequent presenting symptom was dyspnea (idiopathic/familial PAH, 53\%; PAH associated with congenital heart disease, 30\%). Presyncope/syncope was more frequent in patients with idiopathic PAH/familial PAH (36\%) than in those with PAH associated with congenital heart disease (4\%). At diagnosis, mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index were 56 mm Hg and 17 Wood units · m(2), respectively. Five-year survival from diagnosis for the overall cohort was 74±6\%, with no significant difference between the idiopathic PAH/familial PAH (n=122, 75±7\%) and PAH associated with congenital heart disease (n=77, 71±13\%) cohorts (P=0.53). Older age at diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with decreased survival from diagnosis. Variables at enrollment that were significantly associated with decreased survival from enrollment included higher pulmonary vascular resistance index, lower-weight z scores, and familial PAH. Additional variables at enrollment, identified in a secondary analysis, that were marginally associated with increased survival from enrollment included acute vasoreactivity (adaptation of conventional pediatric definition; P=0.087) and lower brain natriuretic peptide (P=0.060). None of the 22 patients who were acute responders treated with high-dose calcium channel blockade as monotherapy or combination therapy died within 5 years of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Using REVEAL, we identified key predictors of survival in childhood PAH. Refining these prognostic parameters should help clinicians improve outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214.
This article was published in Circulation
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology