Author(s): Whittingham DG, Leibo SP, Mazur P
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Abstract Mouse embryos survived freezing to -196 degrees C. Survival required slow cooling (0.3 degrees to 2 degrees C per minute) and slow warming (4 degrees to 25 degrees C per minute). Depending on the specific rates used, 50 to 70 percent of more than 2500 frozen and thawed early embryos developed into blastocysts in culture after storage at -196 degrees C for up to 8 days. When approximately 1000 of the survivors, including some frozen to -269 degrees C (4 degrees K), were transferred into foster mothers, 65 percent of the recipients became pregnant. More than 40 percent of the embryos in these pregnant mice gave rise to normal, living full-term fetuses or newborn mice.
This article was published in Science
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research