alexa Survival of pathogenic micro-organisms and parasites in excreta, manure and sewage sludge.
Engineering

Engineering

Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Author(s): Strauch D

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The causative agents of many infectious diseases are excreted by the faecal route and also with other excretions or secretions of the body. Some pathogens are also excreted from clinically healthy animals, from those with latent infections and in cases of transmissible multifactorial diseases. In all types of livestock housing, the pathogens finally reach the floor with the installations for collecting manure as a solid or liquid. Under these conditions livestock owners do not realise that manure may contain pathogens, and therefore do not take precautions against possible spread of diseases by utilisation of manure. The pathogens do not survive very long in stored farmyard manure because of the temperatures and biological and biochemical activities prevailing in the middens. But the conditions in slurry are different because the temperature does not rise and biochemical activity is low. Therefore the pathogens survive for rather long periods in slurry. To avoid disease transfer by utilisation of manure and slurry as fertilisers, certain precautions are necessary and these are described in detail. The agricultural utilisation of municipal sewage sludge is common in many countries. However, these sludges contain pathogens which are excreted by the human population served by the sewers and sewage treatment plants. In the sewage purification processes most of the pathogens are reduced in number but not completely eliminated. They are enriched by sedimentation processes in the sewage sludge. To protect the livestock of farms utilising sewage sludge as fertiliser or for amending soils it is necessary to sanitise hygienically dubious sludges prior to their use. The epidemiological aspects of agricultural sludge utilisation are discussed and details of the available sanitation technologies are given.
This article was published in Rev Sci Tech and referenced in Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version