alexa Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in malignant disease.
Medicine

Medicine

Journal of General Practice

Author(s): Srensen JB, Andersen MK, Hansen HH, Srensen JB, Andersen MK, Hansen HH

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The first clinical case of a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was presented by Schwartz et al. in 1957 (Am J Med 1957; 23: 529-42), describing two patients with lung cancer who developed hyponatraemia associated with continued urinary sodium loss. They postulated that the tumours led to the inappropriate release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), later discovered to consist of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). This suggestion was later confirmed in several studies. The clinical description of the syndrome has changed little since the original observation, and the cardinal findings of SIADH are as follows: (i) hyponatraemia with corresponding hypo-osmolality of the serum and extracellular fluid, (ii) continued renal excretion of sodium. (iii) absence of clinical evidence of fluid volume depletion, (iv) osmolality of the urine greater than that appropriate for the concomitant osmolality of the plasma, i.e. urine less than maximal diluted, and (v) normal function of kidneys, suprarenal glands and thyroid glands. Measurement of AVP in plasma is not a part of the definition of SIADH. SIADH may be caused by a variety of malignant tumours, but may also be caused by various other conditions, such as disorders involving the central nervous system, intrathoratic disorders such as infections, positive pressure ventilation and conditions with decrease in left atrial pressure. Also, a large number of pharmaceutical agents have been shown to produce SIADH, including a number of cytotoxic drugs such as vincristine, vinblastine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. A broad spectrum of malignant tumours has been reported to cause SIADH; however, most of these observations have been in case reports including very few patients. This includes a number of primary brain tumours, haematologic malignancies, intrathoracic non-pulmonary cancers, skin tumours, gastrointestinal cancers, gynaecological cancer, breast-and prostatic cancer, and sarcomas. Larger series of patients have revealed that SIADH occurs in 3\% of patients with head and neck cancer (47 cases out of 1696 patients), in 0.7\% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (three cases out of 427 patients), and in 15\% of cases of small-cell lung cancer (214 cases out of 1473 patients). The optimal therapy for SIADH is to treat the underlying malignant disease. If this is not possible, or if the disease has become refractory, other treatment methods are available such as water restriction, demeclocycline therapy, or, in severe cases, infusion of hypertonic saline together with furosemide during careful monitoring.
This article was published in J Intern Med and referenced in Journal of General Practice

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version