Author(s): Ellis NM, Li Y, Hildebrand W, Fischetti VA, Cunningham MW
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Abstract Mimicry between streptococcal M protein and cardiac myosin is important in the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease. M protein-specific human T cell clones derived from rheumatic carditis were cross-reactive with human cardiac myosin, and laminin, a valve protein. Among the 11 CD4(+) and CD8(+) cross-reactive T cell clones, at least 6 different reactivity patterns were distinguished, suggesting different degrees of cross-reactivity and a very diverse T cell repertoire. The latter was confirmed by a heterogeneous Vbeta gene and CDR3 usage. HLA restriction and Th1 cytokine production in response to rM6 protein were preserved when the T cell clones were stimulated by human cardiac myosin or other alpha-helical proteins, such as tropomyosin and laminin. The cross-reactive human T cell clones proliferated to B2 and B3A, dominant peptide epitopes in the B repeat region of streptococcal M protein. In human cardiac myosin, epitopes were demonstrated in the S2 and light meromyosin regions. In our study, T cell mimicry was defined as recognition of structurally related Ags involved in disease and recognized by the same T cell. Mimicry in our study was related to alpha-helical coiled coil proteins which have a repetitive seven-aa residue periodicity that maintains alpha-helical structure and thus creates a high number of degenerate possibilities for recognition by T cells. The study of human T cell clones from rheumatic heart disease revealed potential sites of T cell mimicry between streptococcal M protein and human cardiac myosin and represents some of the most well-defined T cell mimicry in human autoimmune disease.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology