Author(s): Schiffrin EL
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Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-grade inflammation has been shown to play a role in cardiovascular disease and specifically in hypertension. Circulating and tissue leukocytes and macrophages are a component of the mechanisms leading to inflammatory responses. Subsets of T lymphocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular remodeling. This is an area of active research and rapid development in cardiovascular and renal disease which offers great therapeutic potential. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data suggest that subsets of T lymphocytes, both effector T cells such as T-helper (Th)1 (interferon-gamma-producing) and Th2 lymphocytes [that produce interleukin (IL)-4], as well as Th17 (that produce IL-17), and T suppressor lymphocytes including regulatory T cells (Treg), which express the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), play critical roles in the development of angiotensin II, deoxycorticosterone salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension, and in the progression of vascular remodeling. As well, recent evidence suggests that the inflammatory response involving T lymphocytes may be triggered by oxidative stress in nuclei of the brain and associate with blood pressure elevation. SUMMARY: These new data implicating T lymphocytes will eventually allow discovery of new therapeutic targets that may improve outcomes in cardiovascular and renal disease in humans.
This article was published in Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics