Author(s): Radu RG, Fujimoto S, Mukai E, Takehiro M, Shimono D,
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Abstract Tacrolimus is widely used for immunosuppressant therapy, including various organ transplantations. One of its main side effects is hyperglycemia due to reduced insulin secretion, but the mechanism remains unknown. We have investigated the metabolic effects of tacrolimus on insulin secretion at a concentration that does not influence insulin content. Twenty-four-hour exposure to 3 nM tacrolimus reduced high glucose (16.7 mM)-induced insulin secretion (control 2.14 +/- 0.08 vs. tacrolimus 1.75 +/- 0.02 ng.islet(-1).30 min(-1), P < 0.01) without affecting insulin content. In dynamic experiments, insulin secretion and NAD(P)H fluorescence during a 20-min period after 10 min of high-glucose exposure were reduced in tacrolimus-treated islets. ATP content and glucose utilization of tacrolimus-treated islets in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose were less than in control (ATP content: control 9.69 +/- 0.99 vs. tacrolimus 6.52 +/- 0.40 pmol/islet, P < 0.01; glucose utilization: control 103.8 +/- 6.9 vs. tacrolimus 74.4 +/- 5.1 pmol.islet(-1).90 min(-1), P < 0.01). However, insulin release from tacrolimus-treated islets was similar to that from control islets in the presence of 16.7 mM alpha-ketoisocaproate, a mitochondrial fuel. Glucokinase activity, which determines glycolytic velocity, was reduced by tacrolimus treatment (control 65.3 +/- 3.4 vs. tacrolimus 49.9 +/- 2.8 pmol.islet(-1).60 min(-1), P < 0.01), whereas hexokinase activity was not affected. These results indicate that glucose-stimulated insulin release is decreased by chronic exposure to tacrolimus due to reduced ATP production and glycolysis derived from reduced glucokinase activity.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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